Saturday, March 14, 2020

Innovative Techniques in the Sound and the Fury Essay Example

Innovative Techniques in the Sound and the Fury Essay Example Innovative Techniques in the Sound and the Fury Essay Innovative Techniques in the Sound and the Fury Essay Essay Topic: The Sound and the Fury In The Sound and the Fury The Sound and the Fury has been seen as an example par excellence of modernist American fiction (Cohen). Its publication represented a watershed in American literature as it introduced several modernist techniques among which: the destruction of chronological order, the division of the perspectives, the increased number of narrators, the free association technique, the stream of consciousness. I have selected three fragments from the first three sections of the novel in order to highlight some of these new literary devices. Each fragment represents the responding narrator point of view about the event that marked the beginning of the decline of the Compton family-cicadas flagrantly loss. The first fragment comes from the section April 7th, 1928 where gradually we find out about the Compton tragedy. The narrator- Benny a youngest son of the family, also a thirty-three year man afflicted by Idiocy-has no concept of time or morality. Thus in his narration the present and the past fuse in indiscernible ways making the comprehension of the plot difficult to follow. Beings memories are blending with the present happenings or amalgamate with each other. The events re narrated in the present tense which renders whatever claim of chronology futile. He says that he could hear the fire and the roof and then he could could hear Caddy walking fast (Faulkner) in this way the clear shift from one memory to another is obscure. This is another innovative technique Faulkner used creating an apparent continuity on the surface of the narration by repenting certain phrases from one scene to another, a sort of harmony in chaos. Beside the fragmentation of the traditional linear time, the author resort to another modernist device In order to capture the readers attention: he doesnt fully epics the events, he only alludes at them, we are only witnessing the characters reaction to them. For example, Benny, despite his idiocy, can sense that something bad has happened as soon as Caddy comes home, walking fast: We could hear Caddy walking fast. Father and Mother looked at the door. Caddy passed it, walking fast. She didnt look. She walked fast. (Faulkner) However we cannot tell what that thing is, we are left to imagine it, to conjecture it. We are only seeing Pennys and Cicadas reaction to it: Her eyes flew at me, and away. I began to cry. It went loud and I got up. Caddy came in and stood with her back to the wall, looking at me. Went toward her, crying, and she shrank against the wall and I saw her yes and I cried louder and pulled at her dress. She put her hands out but I pulled at her dress. Her eyes ran. W e were in the hall. Caddy was still looking at me. Her hand was against her mount Ana I saw near eyes Ana I cereal. Faulkner) I en event AT cays loss AT flagrantly is never narrated, this omission only adding to the increased ambiguity of the novel. Despite the fact that it is not conspicuously delineated all major characters relate o it some way or another, for it has a crucial role in the development of the plot. It also appears in the second section of the novel June 2nd, 1910 narrated by Question the eldest brother. He goes to Harvard to complete his education but being deeply marked by the promiscuity and consequent fall of his sister, commit suicide. In this section we get a glimpse of the story from his perspective. Even though the present- day of this section is almost eighteen years prior to the present-day of Pennys section, it nevertheless follows roughly the chronological development of the novel, for while any of Beings recollections are of their early childhood, most of Questions flashbacks record their adolescence, particularly Caddy dawning sexuality and its consequences on the family name and honor. Contrary to Benny, Question is aware of time and can differentiate between present and past, between memories and present events. However he too, seems obsessed with the past and frequently lasses into reminiscing anterior events. The flashbacks hurl Question in complicated abstract thinking about honor, motivation, sin, guilt, to conceptualize ideals. Faulkner uses the stream of consciousness technique in order o depict Question point of view, thoughts, or sensory feelings. The associative processes, the leaps in syntax, the omission of punctuation- all modernist literary devices- turn Questions narration into a true challenge for the reader,as the coherence and cohesion of the text are discarded. For example in a single block of text a past conversation with Caddy is intertwined with the recollection of the circumstances of her loss of virginity and with the outer events of present time: Sold the pasture His white shirt was motionless in the fork, in the flickering shade. The wheels were spidery. Beneath the sag of the buggy the hooves neatly rapid like the motions off lady doing embroidery, diminishing without progress like a figure on a treadmill being drawn rapidly offstage. Sold the pasture Father will be dead in a year they say if he doesnt stop drinking and he wont stop he can stop since I since last summer and then theyll send Benny to Jackson I can cry I can even cry one minute she was standing in the door the next minute he was pulling at her dress and bellowing his voice hammered back and forth between the walls in waves and she shrinking against the wall getting smaller and mailer[ ] (Faulkner). Question still feels pride in his familys noble and glorious past but also recognizes that today that past is crumbling away. Confronted with his father cynicism and nihilism who advice him not to take so serious Caddy pregnancy, and who also implies that his horror is due only to his own virginity, a useless concept invented by men; and with Caddy sexual promiscuity- a blatant violation of the ideal of femininity found in his Southern code of honor- he escapes time in the only way he can that is by drowning himself. In his perspective, death is the only way o redeem the sin which his sister had committed, but as he cannot carry out the suicidal pact with Caddy, he does it all by himself. In the end he is an idealist, cast in an decrepit and crumbling world, willing to die for his ideas. I en Tanta part AT ten KICK April ton BIBB Is narrated Dye Jason ten toner Trotter AT the Compton family. Unlike his brothers, Jason is much more focused on the present, offering fewer flashbacks and less abstract thoughts. The section has the closest form of a traditional novel, as the story is narrated in a more or less chronological order ND the characters ideas and thoughts are far less complicated than those in the first two section of the novel. This is only Faulkner way to allude at his characters psychology: if Question is concerned with highbrow ideals and concepts, Jason is more pragmatic and down-to-earth. His narrative doesnt include endless remembrance of the past. He takes into consideration previous circumstances only if they have an effect on present time. Still he is unable to escape his family legacy, as he is the only sane male member of the Compton family, he has to take the paper of the head of the family. From this position he tyrannically compensate for the suffering of his childhood by persecution of his young niece, Caddies daughter, Question, by petty thievery, by deception practiced against his weak mother (Scott), by meanest torment toward his negro employees. In a bitter tone and devious way he recollects the past which shaped his present: the sale of the pasture in order to pay for Question tuition at Harvard who killed himself, the loss of the Job as a bankers at Herbert bank, Cicadas husband who retracted the offer when he found out about Cicadas promiscuity: Well, Jason likes work. I says no I never had university advantages because at Harvard they teach you how to go for a swim at night without knowing how to swim Then when she sent Question home for me to feed too I says I guess thats right too, instead of me having to go way up north for a Job they sent the Job down here to (Faulkner) From this section we can see that Jason holds Caddy responsible for the family and his own downfall. In his opinion her first mistake was the thing which triggered the whole series of tragedies that befallen them and that eventually led to the disastrous end of the Compton lineage. Even though the three different perspective stand apart they are only three distinct lights shed on one and the same event, three different focal points. Pennys perspective can be considerate as objective as he does not give any interpretation or Judgment upon the things unfolding before his eyes. On the contrary Questions and Seasons perspectives are Judgmental, subjective. So which of them is the right one? We could ask. The answer is none and all. But this is exactly what the author is trying to do : to show a multi-faceted truth. To exemplify the modernist criterion which asserted the death of one absolute truth.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Network and Internet Security Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Network and Internet Security - Essay Example On the other hand, the single key encryption only uses a single secret key for both encryption and decryption of messages. A hybrid of the two that is single key and public key encryption is what the modern encryption model entails to help establish reliable secure sessions. According to De & Yung (2006, 127), session keys help enhance security of a system in cases where two parties have an encrypted connections to third party. By use of these session keys, the third party can deliver keys the other two parties on the encrypted links. Session keys are established by use of Diffie-Hellman key exchange which enables the secret exchange of keys between two users on a communication channel by the use of exchange algorithms. This way of key generation does not required the presence of a central authentication server or any key distribution center. These two users maintain a secured encrypted message through a partial share of information. Some data is privately stored while some is publicly given for the other party to use. Using exchange algorithms, the two parties can use the publicly aired data to encrypt hidden messages from senders on a crowded communication channel (De & Yung 2006, 127). User 1 computes the key using the public data given by user 2 and viceviser. Both calculations will eventually yield similar results indicating a common interpretation. Kerberos V4 uses session keys to help maintain a secured communication protocol (Bao, Deng & Zhou 2004, 30). Kerberos v4 are useful in verifying users at work places who would wish to access services within a network. Session keys use in Kerberos would restrict access only to identified and authorized users and would accurately authenticate requests for uses. These authentication procedures make the use of session keys become very relevant in Kerberos. It will be almost impossible for another side user to communicate with the server since the given session key is

Monday, February 10, 2020

American Revolution Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 2

American Revolution - Essay Example The British policies caused divisions in the American colonist’s faction since they did not know which step of action to take. The French and the British were the main forces in contention for the American territory and thus, fought a series of wars with the final war being the French and Indian wars or the seven years’ war. It was called the seven years’ war since the French hand garnered support of two Indian tribes, the Huron and the Algonquian, who fought against the British supporting Iroquois. Before this, however, it was assumed that the war would last longer than earlier anticipated and thus, the Albany Congress was organized under the encouragement of Britain. The main agenda for the congress was to keep the Iroquois tribe loyal to the British. This was achieved by keeping the Iroquois tribe at the heart of matters during the congress, discussing issues that affected both them and the British colonists. The Albany plan became unpopular and unaccepted sin ce the colonists had their self-interests at heart and did not want to secede control and power to the provincial congress(Alden, pp. 25-30). What were some of the events or ideas that led to the American war of independence? The main reason for the war of independence was the attempt by British colonists to gain and tighten control of the American economy by regulating American trade and industries in order to suit Britain’s interests. This was enforced in the imposition of taxes on goods and services as well as the movement of people and these goods from one region to another. Also, English trade and navigation acts only allowed transit of goods shipped from America in English ships. Britain, thus, monopolized travel which did not settle well with Indian and British colonists. All of this was aimed at reimbursement of Britain’s money that had been spent during the war. The only reason the British had emerged victorious was that their treasury had outlasted that of the French. This

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Group Decision Making Essay Example for Free

Group Decision Making Essay Abstract Group decision making is imperative for deciding what action a group should take. This paper aims to define the process of group decision making and examine the discipline, theory, paradigm, and methodology that dominate approaches to group decision-making research. Furthermore, it provides an outline of the research’s perceptual process and endeavors to address an appropriate alternative approach to this research problem, and an evaluation of qualitative and quantitative research designs for this area of research. These are discussed in connection with selected empirical data. Critical Review of Group Decision Making Research Group decision making is one of the most significant and methodological ways of overcoming and/or resolving certain conflicts with the aid of other individuals. It becomes a more controversial in deciding what action a group should take due to the varieties of systems, which are acknowledged in order to solve a particular conflict. Decision making in a certain group is frequently evaluated in a separate manner, as the issue with regard to the process and outcome is concerned. While such a process of group decision making refers to how every member of a group interacts with the others, the outcome is the result of preferred method or action that the entire group has taken. A number of masters from prestigious universities have been arguing with regard to the critical review of group decision-making research since the 19th century. One of the world-renown masters of that time was James Stoner who observed that group decisions are more speculative than the earlier exclusive decisions of the members of a particular group or organization (Stoner, 1961). During the period subsequent to the time when he released his masters’ thesis and scholarly articles concerning the critical review of group decision-making research, numerous researched studies with empirical bases have shown that such a perilous modification is omnipresent or ubiquitous occurrence. Moreover, there is the presence of judiciousness on certain group decisions than the members (Moscovici Zavalloni. 1969; Myers Lamm, 1976). However, the tendency of people to make decisions, which is extreme when they are in a group as opposed to a decision made alone or independently, will take place as a commencing disposition of an individual group members toward a specified way is increased subsequent to the given group decision. For instance, a group of pro-feminist women will be more powerfully pro-feminist subsequent to the given group decision (Myers. 1975). Therefore, on decisions that present to every individual group and/or member, a reasonable disposition in a specified way comes along with a group decision, which belongs to a more reasonable disposition in the same way. Critical Review on a Group Decision Some other conceptualization with regard to the tendency of people to make decisions, which is extreme when they are in a group as opposed to a decision made alone or independently, will be superfluous due the number of outstanding reviews and/or conceptualization until 1970s (Myers Lamm, 1976). Throughout this time, the arguments concerning such a conceptualization have become remarkable. Hence, numerous researchers contributed various ideologies and significant contributions to produce group decisions, which are more speculative than the earlier exclusive decisions of the members of a particular group or organization. In latter years, vehemence for group research with regard to disposition has begun to lessen; it has believed that a thorough retrospective view or survey will contribute to the reorientation of research in such a field. In addition to this view, reassessment will also incorporate the tendency of people to make decisions, which is extreme when they are in a group as opposed to a decision made alone or independently, with other gregarious or communal imaginary and cognitive phenomena. Thus, this research concludes by proposing a few significant matters of desegregation. Moreover, basic cognitive process will be involved in obtaining and storing more knowledge and insights upon demonstrating convincing disputation and communal distinction intervening the doctrine that all natural phenomena are explicable by material causes and mechanical principles within the bounds of group decision making. Study of this consequence shows that subsequent in time of taking part in a discussion group, every member tends to propose greater whereabouts; the demand for more perilous procedures of exploit than individuals who do not take part in any such discourse becomes inevitable. This incident has given birth to the perilous modification of group decision making. Moreover, the tendency of people to make decisions, which is extreme when they are in a group as opposed to a decision made alone or independently, is used in order to explicate and give light to the decision making of a panel or a group of people legally selected to hear a case and to decide what are the facts. Contemporary studies of world-renown scholars and savants show that subsequent in time to meditating into a single group, simulated panel of experts frequently determines retaliatory impairment prior to deliberation. Hence, the studies showed that when the favor of the panel of experts is given to an individual that bears insufficient facts and/or explications with regard to the extant issues, matters of argumentation might lead to a more compassionate outcome. While the panel of experts is influenced to ordain an efficacious or disastrous treatment, such contemporary discourse could yield severe and arduous circumstances to cope with. Progress in Analysis of Group Decision Making Brown’s (1965) innovative discourse of such a perilous modification, one of the vital vindications of selected changes, has been a communal juxtaposition. Based on the entire view of this conceptualization, people are regularly encouraged both to identify and to introduce themselves in a gregarious suitable illumination. To do this, every individual should be constantly preparing knowledge and insights with regard to how other groups of people introduce themselves, and changing his/her personal investiture. Some adaptations of social comparison theory shows that the number of people wishes to be understood as more advantageous than what other groups of people comprehend to be the standard movement. In one case that every individual distinguishes how most other people demonstrate and/or introduce themselves, he or she present him/herself in a reasonable illumination or awareness. Whenever all members of a colluding group involve in the same examination of such a methodological or systematic procedure, the outcome, therefore, is a mean modification in a way of valuable community. There is the presence of two fluctuations of the said temporal arrangement; one is that highlights the displacements of cognitive contents, which have multiple numbers of aspects, while the other one concerns the practice of keeping one jump ahead of a friend or competitor. Based on the studies of such a pluralistic ignorance, every individual or group of people introduces itself and/or its own positions as a settlement of differences in which each side makes concessions in the interval of two different proclivities—the petition to be bound by mutual interests, loyalties, or affections to an individual’s own conception of absolute perfection. In addition to this view, the desire not to be aberrant from the notion of the inner direction of a certain group is also acknowledged. Thus, prior to group discussion review or argument, every member of a particular group trivializes the standards of the group ab initio. Evaluation from the primary valuations of their personal standards becomes distant to some extent or degree. Throughout the argumentations, which are unfolded by the entire group, every individual or member of the group is acknowledged nigh to the right standards; hence, an instance of divergence or disagreement by the common action of how good a group member is and how he or she likes to be ostensible. On delving into the second set of options, a group member directly changes to a more idealistic thought or matter of argumentations. As such, the strategic method of group decision making with most group members is acknowledged. Therefore, the theory concerning pluralistic ignorance is that it prevails for the mere reason of precise exchange of information with regard to the true beliefs of most members of the group in spite of the fact that it might be due to the preconception, which has a basis in or reducible to empirical factual knowledge (Jones Nisbett, 1972). Other evaluators made a thorough explication concerning the possible outcomes of procedures in relation to the social comparison. These evaluations have become a more controversial along the issue concerning such matters of argument in which the group of people are encouraged by an aspiration to be unique from the other groups of people in a more precious and significant way or direction of feelings and/or thoughts (Fromkin, 1970). Moreover, these people are also encouraged to introduce themselves in a more advantageous way than the other groups of people. Briefly, such a group of people desires to be unique and become better than other groups of people. As an analogy, Brown expresses his own feelings by acknowledging the fact that when creating pre-valuations in a certain aspect, every individual member of the group gives him/herself a valuation, which is moderately advantageous than the valuation that he or she takes for granted—the norm or standards the mean group member will share. For a better comprehension with regard to this conceptualization, when a member directly or indirectly deducts the precise standards, he or she then develops his or her personal valuations; hence, making the general options with regard to the perilous modification becomes inevitable to acknowledge. Inasmuch as the technical aspects of making the perilous modification in cognitive contents, which have multiple aspects, the technical aspects concerning a current or fashionable trend is a settlement of differences in which each side makes concessions by the common action of self-enhancement and self-abasement. Indeed, however, it may be quite arduous to acknowledge these two technical aspects theoretically. Nevertheless, there are respective imbrications on the pluralistic ignorance and current or fashionable trends. To support such an argument, the general reference for social comparison comes from presentations that coherent knowledge and insights with regard to the standards of other group members is able to make conformation bias. It takes place when combined or neutral vestige is used to reinforce an already made and intelligibly one-sided point of view. Consequently, every member of the group on both sides may therefore make an action or any movement farther apart, when he or she is presented with the same combined vestige. Such e strategic effect is called ‘mere exposure’ effects in which numerous researched studies have tried creating this terminology for further explication of the denotations of the perilous modification within the group decision making. Processing the Information that Affects the Group Decision Making A number of scholarly studies with regard to the group decision making from different pats of the world have been published; now, it remains one of the global contemporary issues. The original perilous modification research of Stoner (1961) has been globally recognized upon the use of certain outlines of the summary with a dramatic or literary work—the scenario, which shows the value of perils that a group member thinks what action he or she should take. For a better comprehension, it is explained with the best example, which Stoner used. He shows such a perilous modification through playing with a chess—the moves, careers shifts, professional shifts etc. In addition, other studies concern the probability of such a perilous modification. It is showed through the frequent exposure of conditions in which it is more likely to be substantial than any moderate exposure of such conditions; mixed with non-significant. Some studies argue that a certain member’s option or a standard on the matter of argument is methodological function of numerous pro and con debates. It is acknowledged as an individual calls back the memory when hypothesizing his or her personal thought or standards. Therefore, in forming an opinion or estimation of the guilt or innocence of an accused person after careful consideration, a body of citizens sworn to give a true verdict according to the evidence presented in a court of law comes to pre-deliberation decisions in accordance with the respective number and strength of the pro-guilt and pro-innocence statements. Consequently, a formal discourse on a topic or an exposition becomes the cause of an individual’s modification of his or her thought with regard to the running skepticism in the court. During the period subsequent to the time when the conceptualization of the power to induce the taking of a course of action or the embracing of a point of view by means of argument or entreaty is acknowledged, a number of studies distinguish the characteristics of statements, which lead them into being convincing. Moreover, some studies express the denotations of perilous modification. They show this through presenting deputations on the statements within the group members. For a better comprehension concerning this ideology, a specified group may or may not change the way, which has given to it. While every member thinks of producing a good outcome, the arguments take place from the other members of the group. Thus, the function of originality is certainly and specifically determined. However, if such statements or arguments are given from the fact that the individual member is already acquainted with such matter of argumentations, he or she then cannot modify or change his or her position or standards of thinking or sharing his or her thoughts with the other members of the group of choice (Kaplan, 1997). Evaluating Qualitative and Quantitative Research Designs As such, if new convincing arguments are given, but opposing the way that has been pre-approved by the group member, their standards will be modified reversely. Hence, a body of citizens sworn to give a true verdict according to the evidence presented in a court of law who pre-approved one who is justly chargeable with or responsible for a usually grave breach of conduct or a crime will come to regard a more guilty opinion or treat him or her with favor. This occurrence takes place only if he or she is liable to the new statements, which give favor to the fact of having committed a breach of conduct especially violating law and involving a penal. The condition of being peculiar to a particular individual or group, as the issue with regard to the process by which other studies or scholarly researched articles produce, accommodates two general empirical bases. One is that concerns the given correct information. To understand better, such studies or scholarly articles anticipate the methodological system and extent of selecting the thought to be unfolded on the matters of argumentation whether they are breaking up into opposing factions or grouping, or causing to become partially or wholly unbroken up to opposing factions. In addition to this statement or argument with regard to the critical review of group decision making, the number of studies make it easier to bring out the conceptual coordination of mental processes into a normal effective personality or with the individual’s environment, or the operation of finding a function whose differential is known and/or solving a different equation. In view of that fact, the fundamental technical aspect is the same for statements, which have been processed in a more advanced and secure system, or in a mutual or reciprocal action or influence with the other people or group members. Therefore, to support the entire conceptualization of this view, the vestige for the proposition that convincing statements alone may yield choice modification and a position of polarization, which has been assumed for a specific purpose—boldly supported by advanced explications of polarization (Pruitt, 197la. 1971b). Conclusion I have learned substantially from the said research and conceptualization of contemporary argumentations with regard to the critical review of group decision making and it impelled me to seek various means to learn the more advanced and methodological process of critical thinking and evaluation on the group decision-making. First, I have learned to perceive more contemplatively. This means, prior to making decisions or establishing beliefs, a group member must be aware that he or she has personal biases about certain things and he or she should not let this get in the way of arriving at an accurate perception and wise decision. Second, I have learned that by being more involved and by listening to and observing people a particular member of the group, who joins the arguments while discussing the best things to gain favorable outcomes, would be able to gain a broader perspective, if not a holistic view, of people and circumstances as a whole. This means that he or she should not only be satisfied with what he or she sees or wants to see but endeavor to look further and probe deeper into what is actually happening that he or she could not directly sense. Moreover, he or she should also verify his or her perceptions and the conclusions he or she has reached through critical thinking by communicating and learning more about the entities involved. These helpful hints have caused substantial improvement in my critical thinking process relative not only to the office works but to all the other daily activities as well. They have led me to perceive accurately, think critically and gain greater understanding of people and contemporary events. References Brown. R. (1965). Social psychology. New York: Free Press. Fromkin. H. (1970). Effects of experimentally aroused feelings of indistinctiveness upon valuation of scarce and novel experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 16. 521-529 Jones, E. E.. Nisbett R. E. (1972). The actor and the observer: Divergent perceptions of the causes of behavior. In E. E. Jones, E. E. Kanouse. H. H. Kelley. R. E. Nisbett, S. Valins. B. Veiner(Eds. ). Attribution. Perceiving the causes of behavior. Morristown. NJ: General Learning Press. Kaplan. M. F. (1977). Discussion polarization effects in a modified jury decision paradigm: Informational influences. Sociomeir): 40, 262-271 Moscovici. S. , Zavalloni. M. (1969). The group as a polarizer of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 12. I25-135. Myers, D. G. (1975). Discussion-induced attitude polarization. Human Relations, 28, 699-714 Myers. D. G. , Lamm. H. (1975). The polarizing effect of group discussion. American Scientist, 63. 297-303. Pruitl, D. G. (197 la). Choice shifts in group discussion: An introductory review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 20, 339-360. (197lb). Conclusions: Toward an understanding of choice shifts in group discussion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 20. 495-510. Stoner, J. A. F. (1961). A comparison of individual and group decisions involving risk. Unpublished masters thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge, MA.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Disease Outbreak :: Epidemic Short Story Essays

Disease Outbreak An inhuman sound disrupted my peaceful slumber. My eyes shifted slowly toward my clock. The red numbers confirmed my suspicion. "Christ," I thought to myself. "3:30 in the morning. This is going to be a bad day of work." I pushed my blankets off of me and sat up in bed. To my left, the sheets were already pushed back and Marissa was nowhere to be seen. At first, I didn't make the connection; I was too tired from working 12-hour shifts at the hospital and thinking was not my number one priority right now. With another intense day ahead of me, I wanted every second of sleep I could possibly take. I was about to fall asleep when the noise shook my soul again. It reminded me of a chain-smoker who suffered from emphysema. Now fully awake, I walked towards the bathroom. The noise appeared to come from there and as I approached closer, my heart began to race. Marissa was doubled over on the bathroom ground, moaning in deep physical pain. I quickly lifted up her body and held her in my arms. Her skin felt like fire as I held her up. She looked at me with glassy eyes and mumbled, "Rick, I don't feel too good." "Just try to be quiet and let me take care of you. You probably have just a stomach flu, nothing else." I was trying to convince myself more than her. Cautiously, I began to [keep] a simple checkup on her. Her pulse was racing, well above any healthy level. She appeared to suffer from stomach pains and peered into the toilet and despite its soupy appearance still had the faint appearance of last night's dinner. "It's just a stomach flu, right?" That is what her symptoms told me, but something was wrong with it. Marissa was the perfect picture of health. She always liked to do nature walks, go to the gym regularly, and followed a balanced diet. Deep down, I knew that if it was the stomach flu, I would be suffering from it too. My mind jumped back to the hospital locker room wall where a notice hung in bold red letters: "WARNING! Be extra cautious with patients showing flu and stomach flu like symptoms. Disease Outbreak :: Epidemic Short Story Essays Disease Outbreak An inhuman sound disrupted my peaceful slumber. My eyes shifted slowly toward my clock. The red numbers confirmed my suspicion. "Christ," I thought to myself. "3:30 in the morning. This is going to be a bad day of work." I pushed my blankets off of me and sat up in bed. To my left, the sheets were already pushed back and Marissa was nowhere to be seen. At first, I didn't make the connection; I was too tired from working 12-hour shifts at the hospital and thinking was not my number one priority right now. With another intense day ahead of me, I wanted every second of sleep I could possibly take. I was about to fall asleep when the noise shook my soul again. It reminded me of a chain-smoker who suffered from emphysema. Now fully awake, I walked towards the bathroom. The noise appeared to come from there and as I approached closer, my heart began to race. Marissa was doubled over on the bathroom ground, moaning in deep physical pain. I quickly lifted up her body and held her in my arms. Her skin felt like fire as I held her up. She looked at me with glassy eyes and mumbled, "Rick, I don't feel too good." "Just try to be quiet and let me take care of you. You probably have just a stomach flu, nothing else." I was trying to convince myself more than her. Cautiously, I began to [keep] a simple checkup on her. Her pulse was racing, well above any healthy level. She appeared to suffer from stomach pains and peered into the toilet and despite its soupy appearance still had the faint appearance of last night's dinner. "It's just a stomach flu, right?" That is what her symptoms told me, but something was wrong with it. Marissa was the perfect picture of health. She always liked to do nature walks, go to the gym regularly, and followed a balanced diet. Deep down, I knew that if it was the stomach flu, I would be suffering from it too. My mind jumped back to the hospital locker room wall where a notice hung in bold red letters: "WARNING! Be extra cautious with patients showing flu and stomach flu like symptoms.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Risk Management & Health Care Regs

Homework Week 4 1. How does OSHA protect health care employees? OSHA is in place to help with strong reminders of the potential dangers existing in a health care facility. These reminders help health care facilities to function safely, efficiently and for safety and security incidents that seem to create a serious threat to the financial well-being of any health care organization. 2. What should be included in a waste management plan? †¢Define and designate those wastes to be considered and handled as infectious material. Segregates infectious waste from noninfectious wast. †¢Establishes packing standards for waste disposal. †¢Sets storage guidelines. †¢Specifies disposal methods. †¢Details contingency measures for emergency situations. †¢Arranges for staff education. 3. What does the employee health department do to protect employees? They monitor employee’s health y giving periodic health exams for those employees that are exposed to a hazard en vironment, or giving health exams to those who are returning to work from an illness or injury to protect that employee and others. By monitoring, protecting and maintaining, hazards are controlled, and injuries are avoided or minimized. 4. Describe the functions of facility safety committee. To set a facility safety plan in which to help to reduce liabilities to health care facilities, these plans are put together by the facility safety committee and the various institutional departments. These plans have to also conform to mandatory government regulations and several other agencies. 5. What is your regulatory agency and what type of license do you have? 6. Why is a national tracking agency for licensed physicians necessary? The national tracking agency for licensed physicians is necessary to keep track of physicians and any type of complaints or lawsuits that may have been filed on them. This is a sure way for patients to check the physician out before they decide to visit these physicians. 7. Does physician peer review override legal action against a physician? Physician peer review is legally protected ranging from complete immunity to qualified immunity. Peer reviewers prefer absolute immunity, since abuses of the process could result in unwarranted damages to professional reputations if the information became public. But, peer review participants have been subject to law suits, initiated mainly by physicians whose clinical privileges were revoked or denied. 8. What are some alternatives to malpractice litigation? Both mediation and arbitration remove procedure bound litigation from the courtroom to an informal setting where neutral intermediaries work with litigants to resolve the problem. Mediators can only try to negotiate agreements. In contrast, arbitrators can make judgments and impose awards. About 15 states authorize a form of voluntary arbitration, and some states allow for pretreatment arbitration agreements between physicians and patients. . What are the requirements to prove megligence? Four requirements define an act as one of negligence: †¢A legally recognized relationship exists between the parties. †¢The health care worker has a duty of care to the patient. †¢The health care worker breached the duty of care by failing to conform to the required standards of care. â⠂¬ ¢The breach of duty was the direct cause of harm, resulting in compensable damages for the negligent actions. 10. How do negligence and malpractice differ? Negligence is the improper treatment of neglect of a patient. Malpractice is the commission or omission of an action causing the injury that must arise from the exercising of professional medical judgment. For example, failure of a nurse to properly maintain an intravenous tube constitutes as professional malpractice, and failure to properly supervise the patient in the bathroom is ordinary negligence. 11. What are the sources of the Standards of Practice? In 1998 the JCAHO Board of Directors recognized the importance of guidelines for improvement purposes and requirements were added to the leadership and performance improvement standards. In July 2001, the use of knowledge-based information for improving patient safety was added as an accreditation standard. Organizations should use a variety of information sources including practice guidelines, literature resources, and information from other outside sources. The Joint Commission expects practitioners to consider the recommendations found in knowledge-based sources. These recommendations may come from professional medical societies and physician organizations, nursing and allied healthcare associations and policy-making bodies, and/or local organizations. Knowledge-based information helps to broaden the perspective of physicians and other caregivers, who have traditionally relied on personal experiences to define best practices. 12. Explain respondent superior and vicarious liability. Vicarious liability in medical malpractice is the doctrine of holding one person liable for the acts of another depending on the theories of agency and control. Respondeat Superior establishes the responsibility of an employer for the wrongful acts of its employees. The elements of responeat superior include: (1) medical malpractice by a health care provider; (2) an employment relationship between providers and the MCO, as opposed to an independent contractor relationship, and (3) providers acting within the scope of their employment. 13. How can high risk be avoided? Risk management actions are seen to be effective in avoiding many high risk situations. Good communication with patients, making sure there is sufficient documentation, gathering sufficient information in reference to the patient, their history as well as information on their condition and treatment. With this type of risk management, it is a great way to start in prevention of lawsuits. 14. What are some of the positive elements that make a department low risk? Risk managers are supported by major legislation, OSHA and HIPAA regulations, to help provide a safe and secure health care environment. Surveillance and monitoring of potential risks are bolstered by rapid advances in security technology and cooperative team approaches to prevent incidents of unsafe practices, and to react appropriately to incursions on security of people and property. 15. What are some of the high risk departments in a hospital? The following selected high risk departments within clinical care deserve special attention: emergency medicine, obstetrics and neonatology, and surgery and anesthesia. Emergency medicine has a unique set of inherent risks. Most patients arrive at the emergency department are in a medical crisis. Obstetrics and neonatology have their risk to both mother and baby. For surgery and anesthesia, they work hand and hand because anesthesia causes risks to any patient not knowing if they are going to have a reaction and surgery, can either go good or bad depending on what the physician finds once the patient is opened up. 6. Explain emergency triage. Proper triage classifies patients by level of need: †¢ Emergency cases require immediate medical attention because delaying medical care would be harmful to the patient. †¢Urgent cases require medical attention within a few hours of arrival at the hospital because the patient is in danger of acute, but not life threatening problems. â € ¢Non urgent cases do not require the resources of an emergency department, because the problem is minor or nonacute, or treatment cannot affect outcome or suffering. 7. What are some causes of high litigation rates in surgery? †¢Unrealistic patient expectations – About 88 percent of the lawyers stated that the patient and/or the family were surprised by the adverse outcome. Either they had unrealistic expectations, or that they were not adequately educated regarding the course of treatment. †¢No Response to complaints – A failure by the physician to respond to the specific complaints that had instigated a patient’s visit to the physician was cited by more than 80 percent of the attorneys. Illegible Medical Records – About 77 percent of the lawyers identified illegibility as a significant problem, and this situation seriously inhibits the defense of the lawsuit. †¢Insufficient Information in Medical Records – Almost 70 percent of the lawyers claimed that information relative to medications, allergies, problems, telephone calls, and so on was missing from records and that the operative notes were written more than twenty-four hours after the procedure. No Follow-up on Abnormal Tests – Attorneys indicated that 62 percent of the suits involved the failure to follow up on abnormal test results. †¢Professional Miscommunication – About 58 percent of the attorneys states that miscommunication had occurred in many of their cases. References (Spath, Brown-Spath & Associates Web site, 2002) Kavaler, F. & Spiegel, A. (2003). Risk management in health care institutions: A strategic approach. (2nd ed. ). Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett. Wachter RM. Understanding Patient Safety. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2008 (Neurology. org)

Monday, January 6, 2020

Introduction of Customer Service - 6685 Words

MANAGEMENT APPLICATION PROJECT FOR DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS amp; HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT â€Å"IMPROVING CUSTOMER SERVICE IN MALLS CENTRE THROUGH CUSTOMER SERVICE TRAINING AND REWARDS† BY SHAMALA JEYARAMAN SINGAPORE HUMAN RESOURCES INSTITUTE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my heartfelt grateful appreciation to my lectures for imparting their knowledge and experience to me. Their motivation and words of encouragement have made me more motivated and interested to pursue my studies. I have learnt a lot from them. They are Mr. Alex Lim who teach me Accounting and Quantitative methods, Mr. Arthur Lee for Human Resource Management 2 and last but not least Mr. Prabhu Naidu for Organizational Behavior.†¦show more content†¦A pleasant consumer experience often results in a repeat venture to the same business establishment. Providing good customer service is essential to a company because it keeps their loyal customers coming back and helps to build new customer business relationships. On a larger scale, the customer can receive a quality product and great customer service while the establishment can continually improve their business. The service of the representative can make or break the company’s image. While all are concerning with the survival of the business, it is also important to understand that staffs are still the best asset to any organization. It is necessary for them to constantly train the staff effectively and efficiently so as to make them competence for their job. The objectives of the project are as follows:- -To identify the training needs for the staff -To develop a training plan. -To create and promote a customer-responsive culture within the organization. 2.0. INTRODUCTION About Malls Centre Malls Centre has seen impressive growth since its inception. The first shop was established in 1972 in Campbell Lane in Little India, selling ready made garments. In 1973, a 900 sq ft shop space was rented along Serangoon Road. Electronic item were added on to it’s range of products. A second shop also 900 sq ft was rented beside the first shopShow MoreRelatedIntroduction And Background Of Customer Service1450 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Æ' CONTENTS INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF CUSTOMER SERVICES 1 Customer service: 1 Background: 1 CUSTOMERS` PROBLEMS DEMAND 3 The top customer issues 3 Percentage highly annoyed 3 Customers` Demands 4 CHANGING TREND OF CUSTOMER SERVICE 5 RECOMMENDATION TO IMPROVE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION 6 CONCLUSION 7 REFERENCE: 8 â€Æ' INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF CUSTOMER SERVICES Customer service: is a marketing tem that how product or services provide by a company ,it is an act of taking care of customer demand andRead MoreIntroduction And Background Of Customer Service1424 Words   |  6 PagesINTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF CUSTOMER SERVICES Customer service: is a marketing tem that how product or services provide by a company ,it is an act of taking care of customer demand and need by providing and high quality service and assistance before customer avail it and after service as well. 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